( Advanced Search )  


 

 

NEWSLETTER #138
Folk Music - American, British Isles, etc.
Ian Campbell Folk Group ->
Various Artists
 

 

 
 

NEW DVDS

 
NOTE: Unless otherwise noted all DVDs offered are in NTSC format which means that they will not play on a European DVD players unless you have a multiple format player.
 
JUDY COLLINS/ ELIZABETH COTTEN/ ROSA VALENTIN & RAFAEL MARTINEZ Shanachie DVD 610 Pete Seeger's Rainbow Quest ● DVD $16.98
Two more shows from pete Seeger's Rainbow Quest TV show from the 60s. The first show includes seven songs by Judy Collins (two of them duets with Seeger) as well as two songs by Seeger. The second show includes three songs by Puerto Rican duo Rosa Valentin & Rafael Martinez, four by Elizabeth Cotten and three by Seeger.

 

NEW COMPACT DISCS

 
ENGLAND THE IAN CAMPBELL FOLK GROUP Castle CMDDD 1072 The Times They Are A Changin' ● CD $19.98
Two CDs, 62 tracks, highly recommended
Superb retrospective of the recordings made between 1964 and 1972 by this fine, popular and influential folk group led by brother and sister Ian and Lorna Campbell from Birmingham. This two CD set features 62 tracks, two previously unissued, drawn from all their Transatlantic album, singles and their 1972 Pye album. The material ranges from unaccompanied traditional songs to contemporary topical songs by Campbell himself, Leon Rosselson, Ewan MacColl and others to pop flavored versions of songs from Joni Mitchell and Tim Hardin. It includes their 1965 single version of the Times They Are A Changin' - thought to be the first non U.S. cover of a Dylan song and it's U.K chart success led Columbia to issue Dylan's original as a single. The earlier recordings all featured Dave Swarbrick on fiddle and mandolin, John Dunkerly on banjo, guitar and accordion and Brian Clark on guitar with various studio musicians on some tracks. Swarbrick left in 1967to be replaced by bassist Mansell Davies. Over the next few years the personnel varied and for a while included another future Fairporter Dave Pegg on bass. At time the arrangements seem a little square but there is a great deal of very rewarding music here. The 12 page booklet gives an informative history of the group. (FS)
IAN CAMPBELL: Dainty Davy/ Green Grow The Rushes Oh/ John Anderson/ IAN & LORNA CAMPBELL: I Loved A Lass/ Johnny Faa (Child 200)/ Little Sir Hugh (Child 155)/ THE IAN CAMPBELL FOLK GROUP: A Man's A Man For A' That/ A Stranger I Came/ Across The Hills/ Blackleg Miners/ Bloody Orkney/ Cho Cho Losa/ Come Kiss Me Love/ Cushy Butterfield/ Death Comes Easy/ Derby Ram/ Dirty Old Town/ Do You Remember?/ Down In The Coalmine/ Farewell To Tarwathy/ Four Pounds A Day/ Geordie Black/ Guantanamera/ Homeward Bound/ I Think It's Going To Rain Today/ I'm Not Saying/ Leave Them A Flower/ Liverpool Lullaby/ Lord Of The Dance/ Lover Let Me In/ Man In Black/ Marilyn Monroe/ Mary Anne/ My Donal/ My Miner Lad/ New York Girls/ No Courage In Him/ One-eyed Reilly/ Pay Friday/ Plodder Seam/ Private Harold Harris/ Remember Me/ Rockin' The Cradle/ Rocky Road To Dublin/drops Of Brandy/ The Apprentice's Song/ The Bells Of Rhymney/ The Blantyre Explosion/ The Circle Game/ The Collier's Rant/ The Cutty Wren/ The Dove/ The Durham Lockout/ The Iron Horse/ The Lady Came From Baltimore/ The Old Man's Song/ The Ox-plough Song/ The Snow Is Falling/ The Times They Are A-changing/ The Unquiet Grave/ The Waters Of Tyne/ To Hear The Nightingale Sing/ Twa Recruiting Sergeants

 
ENGLAND ELIZA CARTHY Topic TSCD 554 Rough Music ● CD $16.98
11 tracks, 50 mins, highly recommended
Gorgeous new collection of mostly traditional songs and tunes from this brilliant singer and fiddler accompanied by a stellar group of accompanying performers including John Boden/ guitar, fiddle, singing & double bass, Ben Ivitsky/ viola & singing, John Spiers/ melodeon, Mattie Foulds/ percussion and others. There are a couple of fine new songs - one from Billy Bragg and one (Mohair) by Eliza, herself. Her interpretations of traditional songs like Turpin Hero/ Gallant Hussar/ Maid On The Shore and, in particular, The Unfortunate Lass are truly mesmerizing and the album includes several superb instrumental sets. Eliza's skill, good taste and passion for the music is evident throughout. (FS)

 
ENGLAND MARTIN CARTHY Castle CMQCD 1096 Shearwater ● CD $18.98
12 tracks, 54 mins, essential
Back in print with three bonus tracks. This was Martin's seventh solo album (recorded in 1971) and his first after leaving Steeeleye Span and is certainly among the finest of a career full of outstanding recordings. Martin's singing has strenthened and his guitar playing is more assured and imaginative with greater use of alternative tunings. He is also having a greater creative imput into the mostly traditional repertoire - sometimes using different and better tunes than the original ones and reconstructing lyrics for fragmentary songs. The latter comes to the fore in the incredible Famous Flower Of Serving Men - a nine minute story of murder, magic and revenge with fierce vocal and incredibly effective guitar. This is one of Martin's greatest ever performances and a bona fide masterpiece. Other songs here include I Was A Young Man/ Handsome Polly-O/ He Called For A Candle/ Lord Randall/ Betsy Bell & Mary Gray (the last a duet with Maddy Prior) and others. The three bonus tracks are live performances from a John Peel BBC session recorded around the same time as the album was recorded and features stellar performances of The Flase Lover Won Back/ King Henry and Trimdon Grange. Sound is superb and booklet includes original notes by Martin plus new notes by David Suff. (FS)

 
ENGLAND SANDY DENNY Island (UK) IMCD 313 The North Star Grassman And The Ravens ● CD $16.98
15 tracks, 57 mins, essential
CD reissue of Sandy's first solo album after leaving Fairport and disbanding Fotheringay with four bonus tracks. The original album featured 8 original songs including one of her most famous originals - the powerful and spine-chilling anti-war song John The Gun, the sublime title song plus others like Late November/ The Sea Captain/ The Optimistic and Crazy Lady Blues. Also included is a spellbinding version of the traditional song Blackwaterside, the Dylan song Down In The Flood and the old rock 'n roll favorite originally recorded by Brenda Lee Let's Jump The Broomstick. Sandy is accompanied by Richard Thompson, Jerry Donahue, Pat Donaldson, Ian Whiteman, Gerry COnway and others. The bonus tracks include a couple of songs recorded at the "Grassman" sessions, a version of Late November from the aborted second Fotheringay album and Next Time Around without the string arrangement - all have been out before but complement the rest of the album beautifully. The remastered sound is a significant improvement over the previous Hannibal CD and the set includes a booklet with new notes by David Suff and some cool photos and illustrations. (FS)

 
ENGLAND SANDY DENNY Island (UK) IMCD 314 Sandy ● CD $16.98
15 tracks, 65 mins, essential
This may well be one of the best British folk-rock albums ever recorded. Sandy's second album after leaving Fairport Convention was stunning in 1972 and is doubly stunning 30 years later on this newly remastered CD. Sandy had an innate sense for traditional balladry, making old songs fresh and meaningful and writing new songs brimming with emotion and as singable as they come. On "Sandy" you get the spellbinding Listen Listen, plus seven more of her haunting originals, a country-era Dylan song, and the most beautiful version of Richard Farina's Quiet Joys of Brotherhood ever heard anywhere. The band features Richard Thompson and Dave Swarbrick as added attractions. There are five bonus tracks on this new reissue - two songs from the soundtrack to the short film "Pass Of Arms," a demo of Sweet Rosemary, the delightful French version of Listen, Listen (Ecoute, Ecoute) and a live version of It'll Take A Long Time with Faiport. No British collection is complete without this album. (DC/ FS)

 
ENGLAND SANDY DENNY Island (UK) IMCD 315 Like An Old Fashioned Waltz ● CD $16.98
13 tracks, 66 mins, highly recommended
Originally issued in October 1973, "Waltz" was Sandy's third solo album after leaving Fairport Convention. It is a bit of a departure in style from her previous albums featuring lush orchestrations and vocal choruses throughout plus jazz flavored arrangements on her versions of pop standards Whispering Grass and Until The Real Thing Comes Along. Sandy's singing is superb and there are some wonderful new songs like the title song, the achingly beautifully Solo and the romantic At The End Of The Day but the syrupy arrangements really don't do Sandy or the songs justice. This becomes all too evident in the bonus tracks which includes three of the same songs with solo piano or rhythm section accompaniment only and the beauty and power of the songs and the vocals come through so much more strongly. If it was up to me I'd put out the whole album with the strings and choruses stripped out. (FS)

 
ENGLAND SANDY DENNY Island (UK) IMCD 316 Rendezvous ● CD $16.98
14 tracks, 59 mins, highly recommended
Like her previous album Sandy's final studio album is sometimes over-arranged but the arrangements here aren't always as intrusive as on the previous album and on the exquisite I'm A Dreamer, which was recorded live in one take, the orchestrations mesh beautifully with the vocals and is actually more affecting than the solo demo. Some tracks have more of a rock feel and the occasional use of a brass section is very effective. On some tracks the ravages of Sandy's life style have affected her vocals and she sometimes has difficulty reaching notes that she used to achieve so effortlessly. In addition to "Dreamer," other highlights include Take Me Awa/ One Way Donkey Ride and a sublime version of Silver Threads And Golden Needles. The five bonus tracks include three songs recorded at the "Rendezvous" session, the aforementioned demo of I'm A Dreamer and her final studio recording from May 1977 of Bryn Haworth's beautiful moments. Less than a year later Sandy was dead after a fall down a flight of stairs and suffering a brain hoemorrhage stilling the voice of one of Britain's greatest singers and songwriters. (FS)

 
ENGLAND BARRY DRANSFIELD Violin Workshop 1 Unruly ● CD $18.98
12 tracks, 47 mins, highly recommended
Superb new album from this brilliant English performer. A mix of traditional and contemporary songs and tunes as well as a couple of adaptations of arias of G.F. Handel. Barry's singing has matured over the years and, is if anything, better than ever. This is a one man extravaganza with Barry playing guitar, violin and cello in varied assemblages. Highlights are a tremendous rendition of the complex The Grand Conversation On Napoleon, the lovely Canadian song The Star Of Logy Bay and a solo vocal and fiddle arrangement of one of my favorites Adieu Sweet Lovely Nancy. But it's all superb including some wonderful instrumental pieces - some showing a classical influence. Barry doesn't record very often but when he does it's well worth the wait. (FS)

 
ENGLAND DAVY GRAHAM Fledgling 3050 Folk, Blues & Beyond ... ● CD $16.98
21 tracks 61 mins, essential
Previously available for a while on Topic this classic album is now reissued by Fledgling with five bonus tracks. The first 16 tracks features Davey's ground breaking first solo album recorded for Decca in 1964. Davey was adept at fusing blues, jazz & folk music and, at times overlaying it with the feel of an Indian raga and his playing influenced a whole generation of folk guitarists. The emphasis on this album is on his blues and jazz interpretations and while he is not terribly convincing as a blues singer his imaginative and dazzling guitar playing more than makes up for that. Davy is accompanied on most of the cuts by an excellent unidentified bass player and drummer. Includes Leavin' Blues/ Sally Free & easy/ Rock Me Baby/ Ballad Of The Sad Young Man/ Skillet (Good 'n' Greasy))/ Maajun/ Don't Think Twice, It's Alright/ Goin' Down Slow, etc. Two of the bonus tracks are from a rare 1963 live Decca E.P. including a mind blowing version of She Moves Through The Fair. The final three tracks are from the legendary 1963 Topic E.P. "3/4 A.D." with Alexis Korner where he introduced one of the most covered guitar tunes of the 60s Angi. Includes 12 page booklet with new notes by Ken Hunt, original LP and E.P. notes and some great color photos. (FS)

 
ENGLAND ASHLEY HUTCHINGS Free Reed FRQCD 50 Burning Bright ● CD $74.98
Four CD overview of the career of one of the most important figures on the British Isles folk rock scene ranging from his late 60s work with Fairport Convention to his work with Steeleye Span (which he helped found) to his lengthy stint as leader of the ever changing Albion Band to his latest grup The Rainbow Chasers. Rather than doing a chronological survey which I think would have made the most sense the set is organized thematically . The first disc presents an overview of his career, the second features excerpts of his music for theatrical productions as well as music from his explorations of English dance music, the third features original compositions by Ashley as well as his work as a producer and the final disc is devoted to his arrangements of traditional and traditionally oriented songs and tunes. 84 tracks in all including many rare and previously unissued performances. The set includes a 136 page 12"x6" full colour book with extensive notes and many rare and previously unpublished photos plus ads, magazine covers, posters and other memorabilia. The first 2,000 copies include a postcard to send away for a freebonus CD featuring a collection of songs featuring some of the women who have worked with Ashley (Sandy Denny, June Tabor, Cathy Lesurf, etc).
ALBION BAND: Albion Heart (Live Version, 1995)/ Along the Pilgrim's Way/ Appalachian Front Porch Game (Live recording, 1995)/ Crocodile Line/ Didn't he Ramble (Live Recording, 1993)/ Flandyke Shore/ He ran out of Road/ Head-smashed-in-buffalo-jump/ Hopping Down in Kent (Collins version)/ Hopping Down in Kent (Tams version - live 1977)/ Ivory Tower/ Kitty come down the lane/ Nothing can turn the tide/ Poor Old Horse (Live at Loughborough, 1978)/ Press Gang/ Rambleaway/ Rebecca Johnson/ Soldier's Joy (Cheltenham Concert, 1990)/ Spirit of the dance-Shooting (Italian Concert, 1981)/ The Party's Over/ The Shipwreck/ The rose and the rock (Live Recording, 1988)/ Time to Ring Some Changes (previously unreleased, 1986)/ Tunes from Terpsichore (excerpt) (Live Recording, 1979)/ We Sing Allelujah (Live Recording, 1981)/ We lie/ When my son has grown/ Wings (Single version, 1998)/ Wolfe (Live recording, 1990)/ Wooden O/ (LIVE,1988) ALBION BAND: The Elements Lament/ ALBION CHRISTMAS BAND: Sharp on Morris (excerpt)/ Somerset Wassail/ ALBION COUNTRY BAND: Albion Sunrise/ Gallant poacher/ New St George-La Rotta (Live Recording, 1972)/ Princess Royal (live July 4th, 1972)/ ALBION DANCE BAND: Loose Hornpipe-Dancing till Monday Comes Around (Live recording, 1988)/ MARTIN CARTHY: Lovely Joan/ KEITH CHRISTMAS: Bargees (excerpt)/ SHIRLEY COLLINS: Maria Marten/ COOPE BOYES SIMPSON/JOHN TAMS: Doin' Time to Fit your Crime/ JUDY DUNLOP: The crow in the cradle/ This Blessed Plot/ ETCHINGHAM STEAM BAND: Horn Fair (Live recording, 1974)/ FAIRPORT CONVENTION: Come All Ye/ If it feels good You Know it Can't be Wrong (Live Session Out-take, 1969)/ It Takes a Lot to Laugh (excerpt) (Live, June 1968)/ Medley: The Lark in the Morning-Rakish Paddy-Foxhunter's Jig-Toss the Feath/ Mr Lacey/ She moves through the fair (unreleased out-take, 1969)/ GREAT GRANDSON OF MORRIS ON: Jack-in-the-green on Saturday Night/ BERNARD HEPTON: William Prynne (edit)/ MICHAEL HORDERN/SAWDUST BAND: Boz (edit)-High Level Hornpipe/ ASHLEY HUTCHINGS & FRIENDS: Abandoned Love (Live at Winchester, 1989)/ ASHLEY HUTCHINGS ALL STARS: Angelina (Live Recording, 1988)/ ASHLEY HUTCHINGS: Coming in to Land/ Cup o' tea vs Batter Pudding/ Dancing to the drummer's beat/ Eternal Circle (live at Shaftesbury Hall, 1989)/ On seeing Grace Slick (Live Recording, 1990)/ Pine Mountain (excerpt) (Specially recorded for this set, 2005)/ Rattlebone (edit)/ Telstar/ Working Underground (Unreleased recording, 2004)/ THE ASHLEY HUTCHINGS DANCE BAND: Rapid Polka/ THE ASHLEY HUTCHINGS BIG BEAT COMBO: Twistin' til Monday comes around-Twistin' Welsh Girls/ ASHLEY HUTCHINGS' ALL STARS: Ring on her Finger (live, 1988)/ ASHLEY HUTCHINGS' ALL-STARS: To Ireland I made my Way (live, 1988)/ MORRIS ON: Cuckoo's Nest/ Staines Morris/ THE MORRIS ON SHOW: Gloucester Hornpipe-Mr Trill's Song (Live, Huntingdon Hall, 2004)/ Shepherds Hey-Orange in Bloom-The Quaker (Live, Huntingdon Hall, 2004)/ THE RAINBOW CHASERS: About Dawn/ Brambles on a Hill/ THE RIDGERIDERS: Along the downs/ NESREEN SHAH: I'm a poor dress maker/ CECIL SHARP CENTENARY COLLECTIVE: Matty Groves/ EMILY SLADE: Our stolen season/ STEELEYE SPAN: A Calling On Song/ Captain Coulston/ Dowd's favourite-10 float-Musical priest (Live Session Recording, 1970)/ One Night as I Lay On My Bed/ VARIOUS ARTISTS: Claudy Banks (from Radio Broadcast, 1999)/ CHRIS WHILE & POLLY BOLTON: Brief Encounters

 
AMERICAN FOLK KATHY KALLICK Copper Creek 215 Reason & Rhyme ● CD $14.98
15 tracks, 60 min., highly recommended
It comes as no surprise that Kallick's country-inflected folk album benefits from guest musicians Laurie Lewis (fiddle, acoustic bass), Nina Gerber (guitar), Tom Rozum (mandolin), Scott Nygaard (guitar) and others, all of whom serve the songs rather than themselves. No surprise too that this outing of (almost) all original material hovers near stunning. Kallick's originals are crafted without feeling contrived, familiar without being imitative. These performances stand head, shoulders, and torso above their recent brethren in the First Church of the Singer-Songwriter. They sound so natural it feels as if Kallick dug these songs out of the ground. Her voice is a combination of certainty and just a touch of vulnerability (but never weakness), her phrasing flawless. A find! (JC)

 
ENGLAND JON LOOMES Fellside 186 Fearful Symmetry ● CD $19.98
14 tracks, 51 mins, highly recommended
Debut album from this talented performer. Jon Loomes is a splendid singer and an exceptional guitar player who also plays fiddle and hurdy gurdy. At times his singing and playing reminds me of Martin Carthy which is no bad thing. He is joined on several tracks by melodeon, recorders and English pipes performing a varied selection of English traditional songs and tunes - some familiar some less common. It includes Jacky Tar/ The Ploughman/ Grandfather's Polka/ All For Me Grog/ Would You Marry A Young Virgin Of Fifteen Years Old?/ Bridgewater Fair/ Wild Boar/ Three Gypsies and others. It also includes a lovely guitar treatment of classical composer Gustav Holst's Jupiter from his "Planets Suite". Fine performances eschewing pyrotechnics or overly clever arrangements. And be sure to read the notes to the songs - they're a riot! (FS)

 
AMERICAN FOLK THE TARRIERS Folk Era 1473 Tell The World About This ● CD $12.98
14 tracks, 36 minutes, highly recommended
Released in 1960 with little fanfare from Atlantic Records, "Tell the World About This" is now hailed as a pop-folk classic. Probably the only interracial group working that era's folk circuit, the Tarriers featured the gospel-influenced baritone lead Clarence Cooper, supported by Bob Carey (from the original "Banana Boat Song" trio) and a 21-year-old newcomer, bluegrass banjo whiz Eric Weissberg. Drawing upon blues, gospel, folk songs and bluegrass, the trio created powerful, compelling music far beyond your typically white-bread "hootenanny" fare. Curiously, Atlantic's execs - celebrated for recording gospel-tinged R&B - did virtually nothing to promote this album upon release, arguing that it was too uncommercial! The experience apparently wisened the Tarriers, because its later Decca sides never approached the intensity of these Atlantic tracks. Weissberg, now a respected New York session musician, penned a reminiscence; Dave Samuelson tells the album's history. Tom Dowd's close-miked stereo mix still sounds breathtaking, even after forty-five years. (AK)
THE TARRIERS: All the Good Times/ Angels Watching Over Me/ Bald-Headed Woman/ Bile Them Cabbage Down/ Dark as a Dungeon/ John Hardy/ Jordan's River/ Little Maggie/ Lonesome Traveler/ Red Apple Juice/ Seven Daffodils/ Take This Hammer/ This Train/ You Can Tell the World

 
AMERICAN FOLK JIM WATSON/ TOMMY THOMPSON & MIKE CRAVER Sapsucker 2326 Meeting In The Air ● CD $15.98
The Red Clay Ramblers from North Carolina were one of the finest old timey revival groups to emerge in the 1970s. This 1980 album (originally on Flying Fish) features three of the original members performing versions of 14 songs from the Carter Family repertoire including Anchored In Love/ A Stern Old Bachelor/ The Wayworn Traveler/ I Ain't Gonna Work Tomorrow/ Lula Wall/ Give Me My Roses While I Live, etc. Fine vocals with guitar, banjo, piano and autoharp.

 
AMERICAN FOLK DAVE VAN RONK Smithsonian Folkways 40156 .. And The Tin Pan Bended, And The Story Ended ● CD $16.98
24 tracks, 79 min., highly recommended
Another wonderful package from Smithsonian Folkways, this time offering Folk icon Dave Van Ronk in his last concert, recorded in October 2001. The booklet notes alone make this CD worthwhile, with track notes by Elijah Wald and short essays by Tom Paxton and others. And while the blues-folk-jazz music here is a marvel, Van Ronk's guitar work is better than that. Between numbers such as You've Been A Good Old Wagon and Don't You Leave Me Here, Dave favors the audience with little monologues, some lasting several minutes, each as entertaining as the songs they introduce. Other cuts include Joni Mitchell's Urge For Going, the oft-recorded St. James Infirmary, Dylan's Buckets Of Rain, Tom Paxton's Did You Hear John Hurt?, Jelly Jelly, Nobody Knows You When You're Down And Out, and more. (JC)

 
AMERICAN FOLK TOWNES VAN ZANDT Varese 66517 Live At McCabe's ● CD $16.98
14 tracks, 65 min., highly recommended
Although hits always avoided Townes Van Zandt, many a discriminating musician has found public favor covering one of his country-folk songs, Willie Nelson (who hit with Pancho And Lefty) among them. Van Zandt will undoubtedly be remembered as a songwriter without equal who could wring moments of pure honesty out of his world-weary songs. His casual phrasing is belied by the care with which he chose his words. This live set, recorded in 1995 at McCabe's in Santa Monica, feels like the intimate show it must have been. Kelly Joe Phelps joins Van Zandt with his dobro on the traditional Banks Of The Ohio and on the Carter Family's Wabash Cannonball with arrestingly beautiful results. The "bonus track" is I'll Be Here In The Morning, a studio duet with Texan Barb Donovan. Other tracks include To Live's To Fly, Marie, Dollar Bill Blues, Pueblo Waltz, Pancho And Lefty, Lungs, Shrimp Song, Short Haired Woman Blues, Snowin' On Raton, Katie Belle, and Two Girls. (JC)

 
ENGLAND VARIOUS ARTISTS Highpoint 6007 Sailor's Songs & Sea Shanties ● CD $11.98
26 tracks, 62 mins, highly recommended Superb collection drawn from various out of print Topic LPs featuring songs of the sea and seafring plus shanties from A.L. Lloyd, Ewan MacColl, Stan Kelly, The Watersons, Ian Campbell, Peter Bellamy and Roy Harris. Songs include Blood Red Roses/ Row Bullies Row/ Boston Harbour/ Poor Old Horse/ The Coast Of Peru/ A Hundred Years Ago/ The Flying Cloud/ Sally Racket/ Stormalong and others including the wonderful Andrew Rose (sung by Stan Kelly) - a song of senseless cruelty set to a truly beautiful melody - the tension between the melody and lyrics is truly spine chilling. Includes booklet with a deatiled diagram of a sailing ship plus notes to all the songs though no details on any of the accompanying personnel. (FS)

 

 Back To New Release Index

 Back To Home Page





Roots & Rhythm
P.O. Box 837
El Cerrito, CA 94530 USA
Toll Free Order Line : 888-ROOTS-66

© 2017 Roots & Rhythm. No part of this site may be reproduced without written permission